Brutal as these combats have been, many of the gladiators have been free males who volunteered to fight, an apparent sign of intrinsic motivation. Indeed, imperial edicts were needed to discourage the aristocracy’s participation. During the reign of Nero (54–68), feminine gladiators had been launched into the sector. Its unarmed techniques have been especially prized inside Chinese culture and had been an necessary influence on the martial arts of Korea, Japan, and Southeast Asia. Much much less well known within the West are varma adi (“hitting the important spots”) and different martial arts traditions of South Asia. In the early modern era, as unarmed combat became out of date, the emphasis of Asian martial arts tended to shift again towards faith.